How the DIANARK test systems were developed and why they don’t have analogues in the world?
The fundamental research of drugs metabolisms and mechanisms of anti-drugs antibodies formation were started in The Russian Academy of Sciences’ Institute for Physiologically Active Compounds (IPAC) more than 15 years ago (see our Publications).
It was thought previously that drugs do not cause an immune response in a organism as they are low molecular compounds. Actually drugs are undertook by multistep metabolism, and in it's course natural conjugated antigens are formed. These natural conjugated antigens are inductors of antibodies raising. We investigated and discovered the mechanisms of the natural conjugates formation – that is complex processes with numerous enzymes and other systems participation. After we studied carefully these mechanisms and obtained the natural conjugated antigens in vitro, the idea of development of ELISA test kits "Dianark-Ab" for anti-drugs antibodies was appeared.
Another research field of IPAC Immunochemistry laboratory is fundamental study of natural antibodies role in human organism. During a sickness the level of natural antibodies in blood serum increases and also their properties change. They become high specific molecules that can bind endogenous bioregulators with high affinity and so decrease their undesirable damaging effect at the early stages.
The study of natural antibodies at different forms of drug addiction allowed us to reveal the correlation of endogenous bioregulators level (serotonin, endorphin, etc.) with the stage of the disease and drug taking endurance (see Determination of Drug Taking Endurance). On the basis of these investigations ELISA test kits "Dianark-Ab-B" for the establishment of drug usage period and severity were developed.
Endogenous bioregulators (opioid peptides and biogenic amines) play the key role in the development of different addiction deceases (narcotism, alkoholism, gambling addiction, etc.). By means of the developed test-systems "Dianark-Ab-B" we can diagnoze different types of addictions, determine their severity and assess the predisposition to them in healthy people.